Saturday, 18 July 2015
30 October 2020
Koocheh Salamati – Cancer

‘‘World cancer day”

2011 February 05

Dr. Avideh Motmaen-Far, Osteopath D.O. /Radio Koocheh

avideh@koochehmail.com

The human body contains millions of cells, whose shapes, sizes and functions are very different. Cells are the basic structures of all tissues in the body. In a normal tissue, new cells are created during a cell division process called mitosis. Apoptosis is a programmed process by which a cell self-destructs and dies when it is too old. There is a delicate balance between the number of new cells created and the number of cells that die every day. When this balance is disrupted, cancer can develop and the cells begin to multiply uncontrollably resulting in the formation of a mass of cells called tumor. A benign tumor, is an outgrowth of cells with normal appearance. These cells remain confined to their place of origin. The malignant or cancerous cells, on the contrary, have the ability to migrate to other parts of the body through the circulatory and lymphatic systems, and form new tumors in these new areas.

There are four types of genes that basically control the process of cell division. Oncogenes determine when cells should divide, Tumor Suppressor Genes tell cells when not to divide, Suicide Genes control apoptosis and tell the cell to commit suicide if something goes wrong, and DNA-repair Genes instruct a cell to repair their damaged DNA. When genes mutations make the cell unable to either correct their DNA damage or to commit suicide, cells experience uncontrolled growth. Similarly, if mutations inhibit Oncogene or Tumor Suppressor Gene function, it leads to uncontrollable cell growth and cancer develops.

Imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, and ultrasound scans are used regularly to diagnose cancer, nonetheless, biopsy is the only absolute way to confirm the existence of cancer.

Cancer is the leading cause of death most countries. Carcinogens are substances such as tobacco, asbestos, arsenic, x-rays, gamma radiations, the sun, and compounds in car exhaust fumes are directly responsible for damaging DNA. When our bodies are exposed to carcinogens, free radicals are formed. Free radicals try to steal electrons from other molecules in the body. They damage cells and affect their ability to function normally.

Cancer can result from a genetic predisposition inherited from family members. Also, as we age, there is an increase in the number of possible mutations in our DNA leading to cancer.  Age is considered as an important risk factor for cancer. Several cancers are caused by viruses. Human papillomavirus is known to be responsible for cervical cancer. Hepatitis B and C cause liver cancer, and Epstein-Barr virus is the cause of some cancers in children. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – and whatever suppressing or weakening the immune system – inhibit the body’s ability to fight infections and abnormal cells, increasing therefore the chance of developing cancer.

Most cancers are quite asymptomatic until the cancer spreads or the tumour compresses other tissues, organs, blood vessels or nerves. Skin cancer or melanoma is often distinguished by a change in a wart or mole on the skin. Some oral cancers present white patches inside the mouth or white spots on the tongue. Brain tumours usually tend to present symptoms very quickly as they affect important cognitive functions. Symptoms such as fever, fatigue, excessive sweating, anemia, and unexplained weight loss can accompany any type of cancer.

Symptoms and several procedures help physicians to diagnose cancer. Imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, PET scans, and ultrasound scans are used regularly to diagnose cancer, nonetheless, biopsy is the only absolute way to confirm the existence of cancer. The stage of cancer determines the choices available for treatment and the prognostic. The most commonly used cancer staging method is the TNM system. T(1-4) stands for Tumour and indicates the size of the primary tumour, N(0-3) stands for lymph nodes and indicates the degree to which the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes, and M(0-1) stands for metastases and indicates whether the cancer has metastasized to other organs in the body. While most Stage 1 tumours are curable, most Stage 4 tumours are inoperable or untreatable.

Surgery, Radiotherapy, Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, Hormone therapy، and Gene therapy are different options available to fight cancer. Early detection of cancer can definitely improve the odds of successful treatment and survival. Cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, its stage, age of the patient and the patient’s general health status.

Cancer is the leading cause of death in Canada. According to the most recent data available, 29% of all deaths in Canada were caused by cancer. Cancer is a life-threatening disease. It can affect anyone at any age and it has devastating effects on diagnosed patients, their family and friends. Cancer also causes tremendous pressure and challenges, both emotionally and financially, on patients and caregivers. Cancer patients often look more deeply for meaning in their lives. Some find the sickness brings them more faith, insofar as others might question their faith in their struggle to understand why cancer happened to them. Palliative care can help people delve their beliefs and values and can find a sense of peace or reach a point of acceptance appropriate for their situation. A safe and supportive network made up of loving and kind people is very helpful in these times of overwhelming physical and emotional challenges.

«نوشته فوق می تواند نظر نویسنده باشد و الزامن نظر رادیو کوچه نیست»

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